From WikiHaj

Afāqī (الآفاقي) is someone who lives out of al-Haram al-Makki (according to the most of Shia faqihs farther than about 88km out of Mecca).

Afaqi is obliged to only hajj al-tamattu' from among the three possible kinds of hajj, and he can perform haj al-qiran or hajj al-ifrad only under compulsion. His ihram begins from special places (miqats). If an afaqi person chooses Mecca as his residence after the obligation of hajj, his duty does not change.


Afaqi is a demonym for a person living in afaq (plural of ufuq) meaning a person who is from surroundings of a land.[1] According to some, the word in the fiqh literature is unlike the common rules of Arabic literature, because a demonym is always made from a singular word.[2] So, some have read it as ufuqī or afaqī.[3]

In fiqh technical usge afaqi is a person who lives in places far from Mecca (in other words outside al-Haram al-Makki).[4] The notion is mentioned in Quran with the word "al-bād"[5] and in fiqh with different words, including, "ahl al-āfāq",[6] "ahl al-amṣār",[7] "al-nāʾī",[8] and "al-baʿīd".[9] in opposite some of fiqh sources have called people leaving around the miqats and outside al-Haram al-Makki, "al-bustānī", as there is a place called Bustan Banu Amir in the area.[10]

In Quran a person living in al-Haram is called "al-ʿākif",[11] (Quran 22:25) and "ḥāḍirī l-Masjid al-Harām" (Quran 2:196).[12] In fiqh sources such a person is mentioned as "al-ḥaramī",[13] "ahl Makka" (people of Mecca),[14] "ahl Ḥaram" (people of haram),[15] and "al-muqīm".[16]


According to the most Shi'a faqihs[17] the distance from Mecca should be 48 Arabic miles (~88km).[18] Some Shia faqihs consider a quarter of the distance sufficient.[19] Their main reason is the contrast of "ḥāḍir" (present) and "musāfir" (traveler) in the verse Quran 2:196; as the minimum distance for a traveler in shari'a is four parasangs (~22 km) that distinguishes the "ḥāḍir" and "āfāqī".[20] some have summed up the two views that 88km means 22km in four directions of Mecca.[21]

The last view is not accepted by many faqihs for several reasons,[22] including, there are hadiths[23] that people of places like Dhāt ʿIrq, ʿUsfān, Marr, and Sarf that are more than 22km away from Mecca,[24] are considered people of Mecca. There is a rare view in Shi'a fiqh that afaqi are considered people that have a distance of more than 33km from Mecca.[25]

Origin of the Distance

Some have considered al-Masjid al-Haram as the origin of the distance according to the verse Quran 2:196.[26] others know Mecca as the origin according to a hadith from Zurara b. A'yan and the fact whole of Mecca is mentioned as al-Masjid al-Haram in verse Quran 17:1.[27]

Hanafi[28] and Shafi'i[29] faqihs consider people of lands outside the vicinity of miqats (known places in which the pilgrims should wear ihram before entering Mecca) as afaqi.

Maliki faqihs know people who are not living in Mecca as afaqi.[30]

Habalis believe that the distance of travel that makes obligation of prayers to al-qasr prayer as the minimum distance of afaqi rulings.[31] As to them the distance is 48 Arabic miles.[32] the view is similar to the popular view of Shia faqihs. The origin of the distance is Mecca in some views[33] and al-Masjid al-Haram in the others.[34]


According to Shia faqihs, pointing to verse Quran 2:196 and mutawatir hadiths,[35] the most important rulings of afaqi is that among the three kinds of hajj he/she is only obliged to perform hajj al-tamattu' and he/she can only perform hajj al-qiran or hajj al-ifrad in compulsion, contrary to the people of Mecca who have to perform hajj al-qiran or hajj al-ifrad.[36]

In the view of Shia faqihs, the other ruling of afaqi is that their ihram should be from special places known as miqat which are specified in fiqh sources[37] Sunni faqihs have also require that an afaqi person wears ihram in miqats,[38] and forbade passing miqat and entering Mecca without ihram.[39] Also Hanafis consider being afaqi one of the conditions of obligation of tawaf al-wida' and do not consider it obligatory for a non-afaqi.[40] For an afaqi person there is a condition of having way and means of travel for their istita'a but not for a person who lives in Mecca.[41]

According to the view of Shia faqihs if an afaqi person takes residence in Mecca and becomes mustati' there, his obligation is performing hajj al-ifard or hajj al-qiran.[42] There is a disagreement in specifying the duration required for him to be considered a resident of Mecca. Most of Shia faqihs believe that passing of two years and entering the third year of residence is required;[43] others believe that three whole years is required.[44] There are views believing that according to most of hadiths entering the second year is sufficient.[45]

Unlike the author of Madarik[46] most of Shia faqihs believe that only in case of intention of residence, the presence in Mecca is considered.[47]

Sunni faqihs have also considered residence in Mecca with the intention of remaining there the requirement of changing in the obligation of hajj.[48] According to the Shia fiqh, if a person from Mecca intend to reside in another place, his obligation of hajj changes to hajj al-tamattu'; but remaining somewhere without the intention of residence does not change his/her obligation.[49]

According to the most Shia faqihs, after obligation of hajj on an afaqi person if he/she choses Mecca as his/her residence, his/her obligation does not change.[50]

See Also


  1. al-Nihāya, Ibn Athīr, vol.3, p.38; Lisān al-ʿArab, vol.10, p.5-6
  2. Hāshīyat radd al-mukhtār, vol.2, p.515
  3. Al-Ṣiḥāḥ, vol.4, p.1446; Tāj al-ʿarūs, vol.13, p.6
  4. see: Tuḥfat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.1, p.394; Hāshīyat radd al-mukhtār, vol.2, p.514-515; Muʿjam lughat al-fuqahāʾ, p.36
  5. Nahj al-balāgha, letter 67; Zubdat al-bayān, p.220
  6. Al-Mudawwanat al-kubrā, vol.1, p.371-72; Al-Rawḍa al-bahīyya, vol.2, p.217; Al-Ḥadāʾiq, vol.14, p.321, 402
  7. see: Al-Muqniʿa, p.395; compare to: Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Sarakhsī, vol.12, p.18; Taḥrīr al-aḥkām, vol.1, p.559, 565
  8. Al-Durūs, vol.1, p.330-31; Dhikrā, vol.3, p.184; Al-Ḥadāʾiq, vol.14, p.320-21
  9. see: Tuḥfat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.1, p.386; Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.7, p.51; Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.18, p.5
  10. see: Tuḥfat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.1, p.394-95
  11. see: Nahj al-balāgha, letter 67; Al-Muʿtabar, vol.2, p.729; Zubdat al-bayān, p.220
  12. Tuḥfat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.1, p.411; Fatḥ al-ʿazīz, vol.7, p.128
  13. al-Nihāya, Ibn Athīr, vol.1, p.375; Hāshīyat radd al-mukhtār, vol.2, p.637
  14. Al-Mudawwanat al-kubrā, vol.1, p.369-71; Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.302, 308; Al-Kāfī, al-Ḥalabī, p.191
  15. Al-Marāsim al-ʿAlawīyya, p.107; Fatḥ al-ʿazīz, vol.7, p.128
  16. Sharāyiʿ al-Islām, vol.1, p.178; Majmaʿ al-fādʾida, vol.6, p.35-36
  17. Al-Muʿtabar, vol.2, p.785; Dhakhīrat al-maʿād, vol.1, p.551
  18. Al-Nihāya, al-Ṭūsī, p.206; Al-Muʿtabar, vol.2, p.784; Taḥrīr al-aḥkām, vol.1, p.558
  19. Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.306; Al-Wasīla, p.157; Ghunyat al-nuzuʿ, p.151
  20. Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.18, p.9
  21. Al-Sarāʾir, vol.1, p.519; Kashf al-rumūz, vol.1, p.336; Majmaʿ al-fādʾida, vol.6, p.15
  22. Mukhtalaf al-Shīʿa, vol.4, p.27; Dhakhīrat al-maʿād, vol.1, p.551
  23. Tahdhīb, vol.5, p.32-33; Al-Istibṣār, vol.2, p.157-58
  24. Mukhtalaf al-Shīʿa, vol.4, p.26; Kashf al-lithām, vol.1, p.277
  25. see: Al-Kāfī, al-Kulaynī, vol.4, p.300; Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.18, p.8
  26. Al-Wasīla, p.167-58; Muʿtamad, vol.2, p.193
  27. Masālik al-afhām, vol.2, p.202; Mustamsak al-ʿurwa, vol.11, p.158; Madārik al-aḥkām, vol.7, p.189
  28. Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Sarakhsī, vol.4, p.169; Hāshīyat radd al-mukhtār, vol.2, p.640
  29. Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ, vol.2, p.166; Al-Majmūʿ, vol.7, p.196
  30. Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Sarakhsī, vol.4, p.169; Al-Mughnī, vol.3, p.502; Hashīyat al-Dusūqī, vol.2, p.22
  31. Al-Mughnī, vol.3, p.502
  32. Fatḥ al-ʿazīz, vol.4, p.453; Al-Sharḥ al-kabīr, vol.1, p.358
  33. Al-Inṣāf, vol.3, p.440
  34. Al-Inṣāf, vol.3, p.440
  35. see: Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.11, p.239-245
  36. Al-Muqniʿa, p.389; Al-Khilāf, vol.2, p.272; Qawāʿid al-aḥkām, vol.1, p.451
  37. Kifāyat al-athar, vol.1, p.288-289; Taḥrīr al-aḥkām, vol.1, p.561
  38. Al-Majmūʿ, vol.7, p.196
  39. Al-Mughnī, vol.3, p.217; Al-Inṣāf, vol.3, p.427
  40. Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ, vol.2, p.142
  41. Tuḥfat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.1, p.386; Badāʾiʿ al-ṣanāʾiʿ, vol.2, p.122; Kashf al-lithām, vol.5, p.64-65
  42. Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol.4, p.604
  43. Tahdhīb, vol.5, p.34; Al-Sharāyiʿ, vol.1, p.240; Masālik al-afhām, vol.2, p.207
  44. Al-Nihāya, al-Ṭūsī, p.206; Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.308; Al-Sarāʾir, vol.1, p.522
  45. Al-Durūs, vol.1, p.331; Kashf al-lithām, vol.5, p.64
  46. Madārik al-aḥkām, vol.7, p.210
  47. Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol.4, p.605
  48. Al-Mughnī, vol.3, p.500
  49. Madārik al-aḥkām, vol.7, p.210; Rīyāḍ al-masāʾil, vol.6, p.173; Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.18, p.92
  50. Masālik al-afhām, vol.2, p.208; Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā, vol.4, p.604


noframe The main source: Encyclopedia of Hajj and the Two Holy Mosques entery: Afaqi.
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