From WikiHaj

Ḥajj (الحج) is one of the most integral pillars of Islam upon which Islam has been established. Imam Baqir (a) says "Islam has been established on the following five elements: prayer, zakat, fast, hajj and wilaya".[1]

Hajj holds immense virtue and abundant reward. Many traditions have been narrated from the Holy Prophet (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a) on the merits of hajj. Imam al-Sadiq (a) says: "Those who perform hajj and 'umra form the delegation of Allah; if they beg Him, He will grant them; if they call upon Him, He will answer them; if they want to intercede for others, He will accept it; and if they keep quiet, He will speak on their behalf, and they will be compensated with a reward of one million dirhams for the expense of one dirham".[2]

In the light of many verses and hadiths, a person who has qualified for Hajj and is well aware that hajj is obligatory upon him and yet does not perform it has committed a major sin.

Allah Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an:

It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a): "If a person dies and does not perform hajj while there was no pressing need, severe illness, or any cruel ruler which may prevent him from performing it, he will die as a Jew or a Christian".[4]

Hajj on Bahalf

Hajj on behalf is the hajj performed on behalf of another person, whereas hajj for oneself is hajj accomplished for oneself.

If a person was mustati' for hajj and hajj became obligatory for him but now does not have power to perform hajj due to old age, sickness, or unbearable hardship and has no hope of recovery and power to perform hajj without hardship in the coming years, it is obligatory for him to hire someone to perform hajj on his behalf. However, if hajj did not become fully obligatory for him, he is not required to hire someone else for this purpose.

Recommended Hajj

Hajj for oneself is further classified into two forms: obligatory hajj and recommended hajj.

Obligatory Hajj

Hajj becomes an obligation in itself according to the Islamic law, or it becomes obligatory because of nadhr or invalidation of previous hajj.


Obligatory hajj is further classified into three forms:

Hajj al-ifrad and hajj al-qiran are obligatory for people who reside within the holy city of Mecca or those who are settled at a distance less than the aforementioned one.

Hajj al-Tamattu'

Hajj al-tamattu' is obligatory for a person whose homeland is located at a distance more than 90 km from the holy city of Mecca (see: Afaqi) which includes most of people. Hajj al-tamattu' differs from hajj al-ifrad and hajj al-qiran with regard to rituals.

Hajj al-tamattu' includes two acts: 'umra al-tamattu' and hajj al-tamattu', the two acts are essentially just one act but because there is permission to go out of ihram in between, they are considered two. 'Umra al-tamattu' is prior to hajj al-tamattu' and both these acts have specific deeds which are discussed below.

The deeds of 'umra al-tamattu':

  1. Wearing ihram (hajj dress) from a miqat;
  2. Tawaf around the Holy Ka'ba;
  3. Prayer of tawaf;
  4. Sa'y (to walk) between the mountains of Safa and Marwa;
  5. Taqsir (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail)

The deeds of hajj al-tamattu' are mentioned below:

  1. Ihram (wearing dress of hajj) in the holy city of Mecca;
  2. Wuquf at 'Arafat from the noon of the ninth of Dhu l-Hijja to sunset;
  3. Wuquf at al-Mash'ar al-Haram on the night before the tenth of Dhu l-Hijja to sunrise;
  4. Stoning at al-Jamara al-'Aqaba on the day of Eid al-Adha (the tenth of Dhu l-Hijja);
  5. Slaughtering;
  6. Halq or taqsir (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail);
  7. Tawaf around the Holy Ka'ba;
  8. Prayer of tawaf ;
  9. Sa'y (to walk) between the mountains of Safa and Marwa;
  10. Tawaf al-nisa' (women);
  11. Prayer of tawaf of nisa';
  12. Baytuta in Mina in the eve of Dhu l-Hijja eleventh;
  13. Stoning three jamaras on the eleventh of Dhu l-Hijja;
  14. Baytuta in Mina before the twelfth in Mina;
  15. Stoning three jamaras on the twelfth of Dhu l-Hijja.


Istita'a, In Islamic law, means enjoying all the required characteristics that make hajj obligatory, such a person is called mustati'.

After one becomes mustati', if the act of performing hajj requires travelling and managing provisions, the person should take every step possible to accomplish this noble pilgrimage the same year. When a mustati' person is negligent and does not perform hajj, he has committed a sin and hajj would remain obligatory for him even if he no longer meets the conditions of being mustati'.


  1. Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi, vol. 2 p. 18, H. 1
  2. Al Kafi, vol. 4, p. 255, H. 14.
  3. Quran 3:97
  4. Tahzib al-ahkam, vol. 5, p. 17.


  • The Rites of Hajj, In Accord with Fatwas of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Hajj and Ziarah Research Center