From WikiHaj

ʿUmra (العمرة) is a worship comprising of several rites which is done when visiting Mecca. It has two main types, al-'umra al-mufrada and 'umra al-tamattu'. 'Umra al-tamattu' and al-'umra al-mufrada have common rites and differences. Similar to hajj, 'umra is sometimes obligatory and other times it is mustahabb.

In Islamic jurisprudential rulings, 'umra is obligatory once in life. If a person fulfills the required conditions of 'umra, he should perform it. Like hajj, it is obligatory for those who are mustati' to perform 'umra as soon as possible. For those who reside in Mecca or its vicinity (not further than ninety km from Mecca, see: afaqi), being mustati' for hajj is separable from being mustati' for 'umra. Therefore, if a person is mustati' only for one of them, he should perform it as soon as possible. It is noteworthy to mention here that this rule is specific only for those who live in the holy city of Mecca or reside at a distance of less than ninety kilometers from the holy city of Mecca. With regard to the people living far from Mecca and their duty is to perform hajj al-tamattu', ability and qualification for hajj and 'umra is not separate from each other because hajj al-tamattu' includes 'umra al-tamattu' and hajj and both of them should be performed in the same year.

It is not lawful for a person intending to perform hajj or 'umra to enter the Holy City of Mecca without ihram. And if he wants to enter in the Holy city of Mecca in days other than hajj season, it is obligatory for him to enter the Holy City with ihram of al-'umra al-mufrada. However, the following two groups are exempted from this commandment:

  • Those who frequently visit the holy city of Mecca for job/occupational purposes.
  • Those who have exited the Holy city of Mecca after performing the rites and acts of hajj/'umra and want to re-enter the holy city of Mecca during the same [lunar] month.

The repetition of 'umra is recommended similar to repetition of hajj and there lies no particular gap limit between two 'umras. But, on cautionary terms one can perform only one 'umra for himself within a month. If he performs two 'umras on behalf of others or he performs one 'umra for himself and the second for another person, this caution is not necessary. Therefore, if he performs the second 'umra on behalf of another person, it is permissible for him to receive the wages of performing 'umra and al-'umra al-mufrada will be sufficient for the performer whether it is obligatory or not.


  1. Wearing ihram from a miqat;
  2. Tawaf around the Holy Ka'ba;
  3. Prayer of tawaf;
  4. Sa'y between the mountains of Safa and Marwa;
  5. Taqsir (cutting a small quantity of hair or nail)

Deferences of al-'Umra al-Mufrada and 'Umra al-Tamattu'

'Umra al-mufrada is similar to 'umra al-tamattu' except for the following differences:

  • The rituals of 'umra al-tamattu' comprise taqsir as obligatory act; whereas in al-'umra al-mufrada, it is optional for the men, i.e. either he can have his head shaved or perform taqsir. The rulings for the women are that they should perform taqsir in both al-'umra al-mufrada and 'umra al-tamattu'.
  • In 'umra al-tamattu, tawaf of nisa' and its prayer are not obligatory. However on the basis of caution, one should perform both of them before taqsir with the intention of raja' (hope of being desired by Allah). In al-'umra al-mufrada, tawaf of nisa' and its prayer are obligatory.
  • 'Umra al-tamattu' should be performed during the months of hajj: Shawwal, Dhu l-Qa'da or Dhu l-Hijja; whereas al-'umra al-mufrada can be performed any time during the year.
  • There are five miqats (the place where the dress for hajj or 'umra is worn) for 'umra al-tamattu'. Miqat for al-'umra al-mufrada varies with distance from Mecca. People residing in Mecca have adana al-hill as miqat whereas people living out of Mecca are obliged to wear ihram from one of the five miqats nearest to them.


  • The Rites of Hajj, In Accord with Fatwas of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei, Hajj and Ziarah Research Center