Adab al-Haramayn

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Ādāb al-Ḥaramayn (آداب الحرمين, rites of the two shrines) is the rights and wrongs of performing hajj and visiting Mecca and Medina Adāb (rites) is the plural of adab means the rites and manners[1] and technically is doing the mustahab deeds and refraining from the makruh ones. Al-Shafi'i and some others have defined it as doing good deeds whether mustahab or obligatory.[2] The word “haramayn” is the dual form of “haram” meaning the area around holy places.[3] which is used specifically for al-Haram al-Madani and al-Haram al-Makki.[4] and when the word “haram” used alone it means al-Haram al-Makki.[5] Medina, like Mecca, has a haram containing al-Masjid al-Nabawi and its surroundings, and its rulings differ from al-Haram al-Makki.[6] Adab al-Haramayn are the deeds and manners the visitor considers regarding the holiness of the two places.[7] and in sources of hadith and fiqh they are called mustahab deeds.[8] Each of the rites of hajj has its own manners which are mentioned in their respective entries; in this article we take a general look at the manners of hajj and haramayn. The manners are two types, common, and specific.

Common Manners

These manners are to be considered in both harams and even other holy places:

  • Respect, humility, and solemnity[9]
  • Apparent and inner cleanliness by taking a ritual bath (ghusl)[10]
  • Not quitting Mecca and Medina after noon except after saying the noon and evening prayers,[11] or Friday prayer in Fridays.[12]
  • Saying obligatory prayers in al-Masjid al-Haram and al-Masjid al-Nabawi[13]

Special Manners of Mecca

Special manners and rulings, obligatory or mustahab, is mentioned for visiting Mecca (see: Quran 2:125, 127, 158; 3:96-97; 5:97; 22:26).[14] also everything that may cause disrespect to the haram specially to Ka'ba is forbidden[15] and is considered as an instance of the verse “whoever seeks to commit therein sacrilege with the intent of wrongdoing, We shall make him taste a painful punishment.” (Quran 22:25, وَمَن یرِد فِیهِ بِإِلحَادٍ بِظُلمٍ نُذِقهُ مِن عَذَابٍ أَلِیم). Manners of Mecca are:

  • Entering Mecca from “'Aqaba al-Madaniyyin” in the north and quitting from Dhi Tuwa in the south of Mecca.[16] Getting off the vehicle and walking from the gate of the city to al-Masjid al-Haram is recommended.[17]
  • Remaining in Mecca for less than a year.[18]
  • Building constructions taller than Ka'ba is prohibited.[19]
  • People of Mecca are deterred from receiving money for renting their houses out to the pilgrims[20]
  • Protecting properties of pilgrims.[21]
  • Cleanliness of body and clothes[22]
  • Looking at Ka'ba[23]
  • Mentioning Allah frequently and reciting Quran[24]
  • Drinking water of Zamzam well and eating al-idhkhir.[25]
  • Attending the sick[26]
  • Intention and decision to come back for hajj[27]
  • Having the eyes cast down and maintaining chastity[28]
  • Reciting the supplications narrated for al-Haram al-Makki[29] in addition to al-Masjid al-Haram, there are other holy places in Mecca visiting of which is of the manners of going to Mecca, including, birth place of the Prophet (s), Abu Talib Cemetery.[30] house of Khadija, house of Arqam b. Abi Arqam, Hira Cave in Jabal al-Nur, Thawr Cave.[31]

Al-Masjid al-Haram

Some of the manners are for al-Masjid al-Haram:

  • Entering from the gate of Banu Shayba[32]
  • Reciting a special supplication upon entering the mosque[33]
  • Maintaining the respect of al-Masjid al-Haram[34]
  • Saying the prayer of eid al-adha in al-Masjid al-Haram.[35]


  • Uttering “all praise belongs to Allah who made you great and noble and honorable and made you a place of reward for mankind and a sanctuary, a blessing and a guidance for all nations”, addressing Ka'ba,[36] also looking at al-Hajar al-Aswad and saying, “all praise belongs to Allah, who guided us to this. We would have never been guided had not Allah guided us.” is mustahab.
  • Touching al-Hajar al-Aswad and if not possible, pointing toward it and reciting it supplication.[37] If around al-Hajar al-Aswad is too crowded it is better not going near it.[38]
  • After tawaf clinging to the wall of Ka'ba and grabbing its curtain and putting ones right cheek on it saying, “O the Lord of the free house…” (the supplication is mentioned in supplication books)[39]
  • Performing tawaf and prayer on behalf of parents, spouse and relatives[40]
  • Entering Ka'ba[41] for which manners such as ritual bath, entering bare footed, reciting some supplication, and saying prayer inside Ka'ba is mentioned.[42] if it is impossible for a person to enter Ka'ba (which is the case), entering Hijr Isma'il is recommended as it is considered a part of Ka'ba and saying prayer in it is mustahab[43]
  • Bidding farewell to Ka'ba: when parting Ka'ba some manners are mustahab, including farewell tawaf with touching Rukn al-Hajar and al-Rukn al-Yamani every round, reciting supplication and praising Allah and salutation to the Prophet (s) and his household, going toward Zamzam well and drinking its water, saying two rak'as of prayer behind Maqam Ibrahim, touching al-Hajar al-Aswad and touching the face afterwards, touching the door of Ka'ba, long sajda, and exiting from Bab al-Hannatin in front of al-Rukn al-Shami.[44] and upon exiting keeping looking at Ka'ba till it gets out of sight[45]

Medina and the Holy Shrine of the Prophet (s)

Of the manners of visiting Medina is that pilgrims stop by Masjid al-Shajara and perform a ghusl and say a two rak'a prayer and wear his best and cleanest clothes and use perfume and enter Medina reciting “in the name of Allah, as Allah has wished, there is no power except by Allah” and salute the Prophet (s) on the way.[46] Staying in Medina, fasting for three days, i'tikahf, worship, giving charity, observing his deeds, and refraining from sins are among the manners in Medina.[47] Upon exiting Medina performing ghusl and going to the grave of the Prophet (s) and bidding farewell to him[48] also bidding farewell to the Imams buried in al-Baqi' with supplication.[49] Most of the faqihs and scholars of Islamic sects considered ziyara of the shrine of the Prophet (s) as mustahab and among the best deeds and worships.[50] even some of Shi'a and Sunni faqihs believe that ziyara of the Prophet (s) after hajj is obligatory.[51] Some of the manners of ziyara of al-Masjid al-Nabawi are as follows:

  • Entering wearing clean, white, and scented clothes, with solemnity and calmness.[52]
  • Saluting the Prophet (s) upon entering and exiting.<re>Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p.50-51; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.57</ref>
  • Entering through Bab Jara'il.[53]
  • Saying a two rak'as of prayer for greeting of the mosque (salat al-tahiyya) and saying many prayers in the rawda and saying prayer beside the pillar of Abu Lubaba (pillar of tawba)[54]
  • Offering the obligatory prayers in the mosque and holding vigil there.[55]
  • Reciting the ziyara text of the Prophet (s) and saluting him on behalf of family and friends.[56]
  • Reciting shahadatayn (testimonies of faith) near a pillar on the right of the darih of the Prophet (s) which is near the head of the Prophet (s).[57]
  • Touching the manbar (culprit) with the intention of tabarruk and asking wishes there.[58]
  • Saying a two rak'a prayer between the tomb of the Prophet (s) and his manbar[59]
  • Reciting the ziyara text of Lady Fatima in rawda, or near her house in the darih of the Prophet (s), or in al-Baqi' cemetery (possible places of her burial).[60]
  • Offering two rak'as of prayer between the tomb of the Prophet (s) and his manbar, then performing sajda out of gratitude (sajda al-shukr), then going toward the darih and touching and kissing it and reciting: “peace be upon you O apostle of Allah…” (till the end of the ziyara text).[61]
  • Also observing silence in supplications and avoiding vain speech and talking worldly affairs.[62]

In addition to al-Masjid al-Nabawi, visiting other holy place in Medina is also of the manners of the city. Including

  • ziyara of the Imams buried in al-Baqi'.[63]
  • In al-Baqi' ziyara of Fatima bt. Asad, the mother of Imam 'Ali (a), al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, 'Aqil, 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far, wives of the Prophet (s), daughters of the Prophet (s), Ibrahim the son of the Prophet (s), Isma'il b. Imam al- Sadiq, aunts of the Prophet (s), Halima al-Sa'diyya, and Umm al-Banin
  • Ziyara of Hamza and the martyrs of the Battle of Uhud.[64]

Visiting some of the mosques and prayer and supplication there is also mustahab. Including: Quba mosque, al-Fadikh or Radd al-Shams mosque, al-Ahzab mosque, Salman mosque, al-Qiblatayn mosque, Uhud mosque, al-Mubahala mosque.[65] Visiting historical places belonging to the beginning of Islam including Mashraba Umm Ibrahim.[66]


  1. Lughatnāma, vol1, p.43; Farhang-i Farsī, vol.1, p.16
  2. Al-Baḥr al-raʾiq, vol.1, p.56; al-Qāmūs al-fiqhī, p.17; Muʿjam alfāẓ al-fiqh al-Jaʿfarī, p.22
  3. Al-ʿAyn, vol.3, p.221; Lughatnāma, vol.6, p.7787; Farhang-i Farsī, vol.1, p.521
  4. Jamharat al-lugha, vol.1, p.521; Lughatnāma, vol.6, p.7792
  5. Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.5, p.60; Muʿjam lughat al-fuqahāʾ, p.178
  6. Tadhkirat al-fuqahāʾ, vol.7, p.380; Jāmiʿ al-maqāsid, vol.3, p.277
  7. see: al-Mawsūʿat al-fiqhīyya al-muyassara, vol.1, p.85
  8. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.401; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.314-332; Mustanad al-Shīʿa, vol.13, p.342
  9. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.401; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.321; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.109
  10. Al-Rasāʾil al-ʿashr, p.168; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.273; Nuzhat al-naẓir, p.16
  11. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.543; al-Nihāya, p.286; al-Wasīla, p.191
  12. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.426; Biḥār al-anwār, vol.97, p.132
  13. Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.30-41; Biḥār al-anwār, vol.96, p.381; Jāmiʿ-i ʿAbbāsī, p.35
  14. see: Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.334-336
  15. Tafsīr Samarqandī, vol.1, p.324; al-Mabsūṭ, al-Sarakhsī, vol.4, p.105; Jawāhir al-kalām, vol.41, p.345
  16. Jāmiʿ aḥādīth al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.355, 359
  17. see: al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.355; al-Muʿtamad, vol.5, p.479
  18. Al-Durūs, vol.1, p.471; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.340-343
  19. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.54-55; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.343
  20. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.367
  21. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.545; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.399-400; Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol.9, p.320
  22. Biḥār al-anwār, vol96, p.193; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.314, 318; Jawāhir al-kalām, p.19, p.278
  23. Man lā-yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol.2, p.205; Kanz al-ʿummāl, vol.12, p.197
  24. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.382-383; 464-465
  25. Al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.355
  26. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.545, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.399
  27. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.8, p.107; Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol.8, p.53
  28. see: Al-Thamar al-dānī, p.66; Manāsik al-ḥajj, p.114
  29. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.321
  30. Al-Durūs, vol.1, p.468; Manāsik al-ḥajj, p.168-171
  31. Al-Durūs, vol.1, p.468; Aʿmāl al-Ḥaramayn, p.143-146
  32. Man lā-yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol.2, p.238; Jāmiʿ aḥādīth al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.422; Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.66
  33. Jāmiʿ aḥādīth al-Shīʿa, vol.11, p.272-274
  34. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.366; Al-Jāmiʿ li-l-sharāyiʿ, p.230; Jāmiʿ aḥādīth al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.173
  35. al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.169
  36. Man lā-yaḥḍuruh al-faqīh, vol.2, p.530-531; Biḥār al-anwār, vol.96, p.190
  37. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.67; Jāmiʿ aḥādīth al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.359, 455, vol.11, p.277
  38. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.412
  39. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.69
  40. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.421-423; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.397, p.460-462
  41. Al-Muqniʿ, p.226; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.268; Nayl al-awṭār, vol.5, p.166
  42. Al-Hidāya, p.252; Al-Muhadhdhab, vol.1, p.263; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.9, p.372
  43. Fiqh al-sunna, vol.1, p.709
  44. al-Wasīla, p. 191; Mughnī l-muḥtāj, vol.1, p. 513; Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol.10, p.163
  45. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.81
  46. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.565-566; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.291
  47. al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.386; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.271-275
  48. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.563; Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p.68; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.280-281
  49. Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p.714; al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.386
  50. Al-Ḥadāʾiq, vol.1, p.403
  51. Al-Ḥadāʾiq, vol.1, p.401
  52. Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid, p.709-710; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.46
  53. Al-Mazār, p.54
  54. al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.386; al-Wasīla, p.197; Al-Durūs, vol.2, p.20; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.273
  55. al-Mabsūṭ, al-Ṭūsī, vol.1, p.386; al-Wasīla, p.197; Al-Durūs, vol.2, p.20; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.273
  56. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.83; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.275; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.52, 56
  57. Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.50; Jāmiʿ al-saʿādāt, vol.3, p.321
  58. Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.50; Jāmiʿ al-saʿādāt، vol.3, p.321
  59. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.563; Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p.55; Tadhīb, vol.6, p.11
  60. Al-Kāfī, vol.1, p.461; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.287-289
  61. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.563, Kāmil al-zīyārāt, p.55-56; Tahdhīb, vol.6, p.11
  62. Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.46
  63. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn, vol.3, p.84; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.275; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p.90
  64. al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.275-76; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, p. 84-92; Al-Durūs,vol.2, p.20-21
  65. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.561-62; al-Majmūʿ, vol.8, p.276; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.275-78
  66. Al-Kāfī, vol.4, p.561-62; Itḥāf al-zāʾir, vol.93; Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol.10, p.275-78


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