Medina (المدينة) is the destination of the holy Prophet's (s) migration (Hijra), the center of the installation of Islamic government and the most famous Islamic city after Mecca. This city is 500 kilometers to the north east of Mecca and is 916 meters above sea level.

It was previously called Yathrib and some historians believe that around two centuries CE, some people from ancient Egypt ruled over this city. This city is famous as the migration destination of the Prophet (s). He came to this city in July 622 CE that coincided with Rabi' al-Awwal in Hijri lunar calendar and this marked the beginning of the Muslim Calendar, but the Hijri lunar calendar starts by the month of Muharram.

In Quran and as per the traditions of the holy Prophet (s) and conventions of the Muslims; the people of Medina are called Ansar (Supporters) and the Muslims of Mecca are called Muhajirun (Emigrants).

During the first months of migration, the holy Prophet (s) formed a Pact of Brotherhood between Muhajirun and Ansar. The Pact of Medina, which should be considered as the most comprehensive human rights declaration, was written in this city after less than one year from Hijra and then, Medina became the capital of Islamic rule.


  • Makkah and Madinah: The Cities of Bounties & Blessings, Hajj and Ziarah Research Center